The anonymous writer who makes and keeps carefully made duplicates of all such letters is certainly an exception and is the rare one who may perhaps be able to make a series of such letters consistent with each other. Their general use, however, may be said to begin about 1873. The competent ex- aminer, however, must know to what extent and in what manner writing is affected, changed or modified by varying conditions and must give due attention to this phase of the question whether he has any information on the subject or not. Reproduced from a photographic copy of the original manuscript in the British Museum. The favorite disguises adopted in anonymous letters are, a change of slant, a different size and proportion of writing, the printing of the communication instead of putting it in script, the use of a different kind of pen from that ordinarily employed, and the invention of certain fantastic forms which may give a very different superficial appearance to a page of writing. Undoubtedly the most well known case was the Lindbergh kidnapping trial State of New Jersey v. Who, for instance, could be induced to believe that any human being in his senses would spend a fortune in purchasing autograph letters of Julius Caesar, Alexander the Great, Judas Iscariot, Mary Magdalene, etc.
Charac- teristics of it may be brought out and made clear by the aid of a photograph or magnifying glass which would not be discernible by the naked eye. A power of 100 diameters will show a surface of about 1-20 inch diameter. The amount of magnification required obviously de- pends upon the question to be determined and, as stated above, high magnification is not usually desirable. This is accomphshed by means of two parallel tubes surmounted by inclosed reflecting prisms which bring the rays of light from the two objects in juxtaposition so that each image occupies one-half of the field as seen under one eyepiece. Decisions on handwriting, with most unfortunate results, are made by bankers on standards of comparison that would be considered inadequate by the most competent and experienced handwriting examiners. It is sometimes a good plan to incorporate into such request writing matter apparently on some outside sub- ject, but including words, expressions, letters, names and combinations that are found in the questioned writ- ing. It is plain to see that system characteristics may enter, not simply into questions as described above, but into any inquiry in which a writer attempts to imitate writ- ing of a system differing from his own.
This question is usually asked in every such case, but cannot often be answered with much certainty, judging from the writing alone. The paper can easily be removed when neces- sary by simply removing the band at one end of the glass covers. To accommo- date varying eyes it is also well to advise each observer to vary the focus slightly by the fine adjustment until the object is perfectly distinct. Clear-cut smooth shades, especially on curves, show a free and well controlled movement and simulated or traced writing is nearly always defective in this par- ticular feature. It is a matter of common knowledge that genuine sig- natures written by the same writer differ from each other within certain well defined limits, and certain nor- mal divergencies in size, lateral position and propor- tions actually indicate genuineness.
This is true of all the productions of nature, and it is equally true of whatever is elevating, or beautiful, or graceful, or minute, in the works of man. On the first day of my Criminalistics class, I ask if there are any students who think O. The exhaustive index with cross-references will be helpful to one who is in- vestigating some special phase of the various subjects treated. Instructions can be downloaded from the handouts box. It is not generally under- stood by the inexperienced that the image is inverted and that the field of vision is restricted in proportion to the magnification. If speech with all its quirks and mannerisms were actu- ally visible how positively it would identify an individ- ual! At the beginning of this practice each cell acted in a large measure apart from its fellows, and there was no well-organized co-operation, or muscular co-ordination as we have learned to call it. Under these conditions it is desirable that testimony be illustrated and enforced by every possible means.
This obscure and delicate fact the microscope will often show with surpris- ing distinctness. In showing dissimilarity or identity in two sets of writings the cumulative force of such grouped writing characteristics is, in many instances, irresistible. The making of document photographs, particularly enlargements, is a rather unusual task, and some techni- cal directions may be of assistance. Orfila published several other works specifically discussing arsenic poisoning and appeared as an expert witness several times. This un- fortunate practice is undoubtedly due, in a measure, to the bank custom, already referred to, of keeping only one signature for handwriting comparison. This hundred years past has seen a vast progress.
Dis- guised writing is usually slow and clumsy, but, whether good or bad, it is a fixed principle in determining its authorship that all possible candidates must at once be excluded whose best natural writing shows a lower order of skill than the anonymous writing. In such cases printed standard writing should, if possible, always be obtained. A com- mon fallacy in dealing with such evidence is to take each coincidence separately, and to show that a similar coincidence exists in some other writer. Specifically there are two landmark cases that all forensic scientists and criminalists need to be aware of. The suspected wTit- er, a young American, among other divergences made the same forms of letters but always in just the opposite direction as they are taught in the Spen- cerian system which he learned.
Osborn is the first generation of Osborn family practice that has been qualified as an expert in courts. Such uncontrolled horizontal movements produce a line with abrupt changes of direction, of a more or less zigzag character, and the involuntary vertical movements produce a line of varying width or intensity Fig. He had an older sister Nancy who was ten years older than him. It was in vain that a few persons of sober judgment pointed out, by the clearest evidence, that the writing could not possibly be Shakes- peare's, for such heresy was not listened to with patience by those who were eager to believe. Osborn a large amount of information.
Any system of averages, to be reliable, must be based on an adequate number of separate examples. Generally speaking the best point is where the entire field is seen and its margin diaphragm sharply defined. And, as usual, the devia- tions from the normal status, particularly under the influence of emo- tional susceptibility, offer the most ready illustrations of this sensitive equilibrium. Z9 O8 1910 — Questioned Documents, The Lawyers' Co-operative Publishing Co. The Osborn practice spans four generations of this family. Being self-conscious and hesitating it usually lacks the smoothness and directness that are characteristic of genuineness. But they were only a more enduring form of exhibiting the signatures to the jury as under a magnifying glass.