Geographical condition has created several natural barriers which denied easy and smooth access from north to south. In the east it starts from the Bay of Bengal and spreads right up to Arabian Sea in the West. The area is characterised by hot, humid, and very harsh summers. The easterly jet weakens, and the upper tropospheric easterlies move much farther south. The monsoons in India are very important for the economy of the country as it affects the agriculture which is the mainstay of a huge workforce of the nation. The western disturbances originate over the Mediterranean sea and travel eastward under the influence of westerly jet stream.
During the season streams and natural springs are replenished. There are in Bihar three distinct areas where rainfall exceeds 1,800 mm 71 in. In the reverse case, the monsoons are most likely to be weaker. India has both tropical and subtropical climates. By then the upper tropospheric belt of warmth from condensation has moved above northern India, with an oblique bias. Summers season in Mumbai is from April to Mid June followed by monsoon from Mid June to Mid September.
Temperature rises on the Tibetan Plateau are causing , threatening the of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, , and other major rivers; the livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of farmers depend on these rivers. The weather over the central and southern districts, however, becomes suddenly drier and remains so for as long as the abnormal shift lasts. Several since 1900 have been devastating, including one in 1934 in what is now state that killed more than 10,000 people. A product of southeast originating from a high-pressure mass centred over the southern Indian Ocean, the monsoonal torrents supply over 80% of India's annual rainfall. Altitude India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of about 6,000 metres.
Though they provide rice paddy farmers with a largely dependable source of natural irrigation and fertilisation, the floods can kill thousands and displace millions. The landscape in India is divided into five regions: the Northern mountains, the great plains, the Thar Desert, the Central Highlands and the coastal plains. The coast benefits from some cooling breezes. Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Odisha, some parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka are some of the drought-prone areas in the country. Traditionally, North Indians note six seasons or Ritu, each about two months long. In general, the ratio of bhangar areas to those of khadar increases upstream along all major rivers.
India remains one of the most ethnically countries in the world. . Winds move from the high-pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean, cross the equator and turn right towards the low-pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. The north-eastern winter monsoon travel from land to sea and do not cause much rainfall except along the Caromandel coast after getting moisture from the Bay of Bengal. This is particularly true of major drought-prone regions such as southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Western Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. This compares with a range of 12—14 °C 54—57 °F on the Malabar Coast; there, as is the case for other coastal areas, the Indian Ocean exerts a strong moderating influence on weather. In 2001 another tremor the , farther from the mountains, in state, was less powerful but caused extensive damage, taking the lives of more than 20,000 people and leaving more than 500,000 homeless.
Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, which usually track from north to south; they cause extensive property damage in North India and deposit large amounts of dust from arid regions. India's northern border is dominated mostly by Nepal and the Himalayas, the world's highest mountain chain. The new mountains—together with vast amounts of sediment eroded from them—were so heavy that the Indian-Australian Plate just south of the range was forced downward, creating a zone of crustal subsidence. Similarly, the amount of annual rainfall at Kolkata is 119 cm which falls to a low of 24 cm at Bikaner. Snowfall is generally common in alpine tracts that are above 2,200 metres 7,218 ft , especially those in the higher- and trans-Himalayan regions.
The Arctic regions, Sub-Saharan Africa, small islands and Asian mega deltas, including the Ganga and Brahmaputra, will be affected most. In summer, a low-pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over northwestern India. Noticeably drier than areas with a tropical monsoon climate, it prevails over most of inland peninsular India except for a semi arid east of the Western Ghats. This jet stream is responsible for bringing western disturbances from the Mediterranean region in to the Indian subcontinent. Interspersed in the Siwaliks are heavily flat valleys duns with a high population density.
India's two island territories, Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, are also subject to this climate. Notably, a higher frequency of such disturbances in April correlates with a delayed monsoon onset thus extending summer in northwest India. Southern Oscillation: There is a strange linkage of meteorological changes often observed between the Indian and the Pacific Oceans. Winter highs in Delhi range from 16 to 21 °C 61 to 70 °F. Usually, the southern parts of the country get higher volume of precipitation than the northern parts of the country. Around seven million people are projected to be displaced due to, among other factors, submersion of parts of Mumbai and Chennai if global temperatures were to rise by a mere 2 °C 3.
Central India The two Central Indian states, namely, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, experience summer with moderate temperatures where the winters are moderate as well. Eventually, some of those raiders stayed; by the 13th century much of the subcontinent was under Muslim rule, and the number of Muslims steadily increased. In northwestern India region, virtually cloudless conditions prevail in October and November, resulting in wide diurnal temperature swings; as in much of the Deccan Plateau, they register at 16—20 °C 61—68 °F. India also has a vast coastal area where the maximum elevation is about 30 metres. Such a natural obstruction automatically, forbidding the invaders to cross the colossal mountain and embark upon on expedition. What they need is promotion. Nonetheless, the monsoon is the ideal occasion to see the famous yet secluded Ladakh in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in northern India.
When British rule came to an end in 1947, the subcontinent was partitioned along religious lines into two separate countries—India, with a majority of Hindus, and , with a majority of Muslims; the eastern portion of Pakistan later split off to form. India's and are climatically pivotal: the in the northwest and the in the north work in tandem to effect a and important monsoonal regime. At lower elevations, in parts of northern and western India, a strong, hot, and dry wind known as the blows in from the west during the daytime; with very high temperatures, in some cases up to around 45 °C 113 °F ; it can cause fatal cases of. The effects of the collision and continued subduction are numerous and extremely complicated. On the arrival of the Aryans in the northern plain the existing population was compelled to migrate towards the Deccan plateau.