When antidiuretic hormone is present, A The renal tubules become impermeable to water B The renal tubules become permeable to water C Urine output is increased and diluted D The frequency of voiding increases Ans: B Feedback: When antidiuretic hormone is present, the distal tubule of the nephron becomes more permeable to water. A The patients family members have been donors. Per order, the nurse draws blood and requests a potassium level. Infiltration presents as erythema, pain, and swelling. Loss of the lungs as a buffer system causes the kidneys to compensate.
Electrolytes in living systems include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper, and chromium. In people who have cystic fibrosis, chloride levels in sweat are two to five times those of normal levels, and analysis of sweat is often used in the diagnosis of the disease. A Continue with the transfusion and document the drip rate. Hypokalemia is an abnormally low potassium blood level. A Cheese B Meat C Cauliflower D Salad Ans: A Feedback: Dairy products are excellent sources of calcium. Extravasation is infiltration of a vesicant substance into the tissues. Positive and negatively charged particles are either acidic or alkaline in nature.
A patient has an order to restrict fluids. A calm approach can alleviate some of the fear. Choose all prescriptions that should be questioned. Hypernatremia, a high sodium level, produces extreme thirst and agitation. D Infants lose more fluids through output than adults. The nurse should assess which electrolyte? D The right arm should not be used.
Active transport is vital for maintaining the unique composition of both the extracellular and intracellular compartments. Hyperkalemia, a high potassium level, manifests as weakness, fatigue, and cardiac dysrhythmias. What food is a significant source of phosphorous? When the nurse enters the room, she finds the child sobbing uncontrollably. The patient complains of muscle weakness and falls easily. Water and small particles constantly move in and out of the semipermeable membrane in the cell through active transport and osmosis. The percentage in any individual is influenced by age and lean body mass, therefore the percentage is higher in men compared to women, in children compared to adults, and in people of normal body habitus compared to the obese. A deficiency of vitamin D leads to a decrease in absorbed calcium and, eventually, a depletion of calcium stores from the skeletal system, potentially leading to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, contributing to osteoporosis.
Molecular particles can also pass from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration by a process known as active transport. An appropriate nursing diagnosis for the patient is which of the following? When a transfusion reaction is suspected, the infusion should be stopped immediately. D The patient will only need fluids, not blood. Active transport requires energy expenditure for the movement to occur against a concentration gradient. The band begins practicing outside in August. Bicarbonate is transported in the blood.
A patient has been admitted to the nursing unit with a diagnosis of chronic renal failure. The pulmonary system plays a major role in regulation of acidbase balance. In contrast, calcium and phosphate analysis requires a collection of urine across a 24-hour period, because the output of these ions can vary considerably over the course of a day. A nurse is administering a potassium supplement to a patient. The nurse should confirm that this has been obtained. A Adolescents B Young adults C Middle-aged adults D Older adults Ans: A Feedback: Fad diets or purging to lose weight can cause severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances. An abnormal loss of sodium from the body can result from several conditions, including excessive sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea; the use of diuretics; excessive production of urine, which can occur in diabetes; and acidosis, either metabolic acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis.
What would be an appropriate nursing diagnosis on which to base a teaching plan? The nurse discovered a rash on the patients trunk. Acidbase regulation can be monitored by examining arterial blood gases, especially blood pH. Hyperkalemia, an elevated potassium blood level, also can impair the function of skeletal muscles, the nervous system, and the heart. Which of the following solutions is a crystalloid solution that has the same osmotic pressure as that found within the cells of the body and is used to expand the intravascular volume? The intracellular, interstitial, and intravascular compartments each hold fluid characterized by markedly different electrolyte profiles. Hyperkalemia and the presence of peaked T waves. The diet for renal failure clients should control protein, sodium, and fluid.
What abnormal result would the nurse expect to find? Diphenhydramine an antihistamine may be ordered once the physician has been notified of the patients condition. Urine output varies according to intake and activity but should remain at least 30 to 50 mL per hour. C If I were you, I would request special handling of my blood. Which process requires energy to maintain the unique composition of extracellular and intracellular compartments? Cross-matching of blood is ordered for a patient before major surgery. Fluid and Electrolytes Values If there is an alteration in electrolytes, the client experiences a state of disequilibrium. The nurse finds the patient to be disoriented; he has periods of being calm mixed with episodes of being disruptive and loud. A Observe skin color and texture.
Intravascular fluid is the plasma within the blood. The P O2 level is normal. A flat T wave is associated with hypokalemia. His mother tells him to shut up and act your age. Hypocalcemia, or abnormally low calcium blood levels, is seen in hypoparathyroidism, which may follow the removal of the thyroid gland, because the four nodules of the parathyroid gland are embedded in it. Examples of hypertonic solutions include 3% NaCl and 5% saline NaCl. A Either arm may be used.