By showing us the reactions of Hektor's loved ones back in Troy, the poet lets us share in the emotional connection forged between Achilleus and Priam. Cassandra's story is accompanied by four essays which Wolf delivered as the Frankfurter Poetik-Vorlesungen. Meanwhile, a surrogate conflict is being waged between the gods on behalf of the Trojans and Achaeans. Hector takes Achilles' armor off Patroclus and wears it. While tells Priam about the Greek commanders from the walls of Troy, both sides swear a truce and promise to abide by the outcome of the duel. Filled with homesickness, Helen goes up to the top of the Scaean Gates, where, invited by Priam, she sits among the elder men of Troy.
Hector alone remains outside the wall, determined to stand fast against Achilles, but as Achilles approaches him, Hector loses his nerve and begins to run. She realizes that the death and destruction around her have in part been her fault, and she tries to resist Aphrodite when Aphrodite lures her back to Paris' bed. He then lashes the body to the back of his chariot and drags it across the battlefield to the Achaean camp. Hera is responsible for Achilles having the idea to call the assembly, Athena stops Achilles from killing Agamemnon, Apollo brings plague on the Achaeans. Nestor asks Patroklos to dress in Achilles' armor and return to battle. There is beautiful symmetry in Book 1 between Olympus and the mortal men below: Book 1 has two feasts that occur in a context of conflict: the first feast is celebrated in the world of men, and the second feast is in the halls of Olympus. The tide of battle turns several times, but the Trojan forces under Hector eventually push the Achaeans back to the fortifications they have built around their ships.
On the battlefield, Paris and Menelaus agree to duel to end the war. Here, as always, we see the theme of interaction of free will and fate. Gods constantly aid particular warriors. These men respond with anger: to Odysseus, Agamemnon apologizes, but the angry Sthenalus is calmed by , who explains that as king Agamemnon must incite the troops to fight harder. The insulted priest prays his god's help, and a nine-day rain of divine plague arrows falls upon the Greeks.
Achilles, ruler of the Myrmidons, is by far the greatest Achaean warrior, but he remains out of battle. After Hector is killed, Achilles decides to give Patroclus an appropriate burial. The truce breaks down into war. Homer's epic poem The Iliad tells the story of the Trojan war and the epic heroes and gods, including Achilles, Hector, Odysseus, Athena, Ares, Paris and Helen of Troy. The fighting remains fierce near the Greek ships. She carries Paris away and drops him in his own bed within the gates of Troy.
War Music, an account of Homer's Iliad. When Agamemnon refuses, the priest prays to Apollo, who in turn unleashes havoc on the Greek armies in the form of plagues. Patroclus leads the into battle and arrives as the Trojans set fire to the first ships. Thus, the Trojan War could stand as a parable for Greek men tempted to choose female beauty, thereby risking loss of rule and defeat in battle. At times, all things seem to proceed according to the will of Zeus. Rather than graciously admit his mistake, the king becomes monstrous and demands compensation for what should not have been his in the first place.
Everything that follows is due solely to Achilleus's own emotional state. Here, Patroclus alludes to fated death by Hector's hand, and Hector's fated death by Achilles's hand. Agamemnon has Briseis taken from Achilles, and he returns Chryses' daughter to him. He asks Agamemnon not to take Briseis, Achilles' fairly won prize, and he tells Achilles that he must respect Agamemnon's position as commander-in-chief. A runner brings the new of Patroclus' death to Achilles and the hero mourns requesting revenge from his mother. As the story begins, the war is in its ninth year.
Travelling Heroes: Greeks and their myths in the epic age of Homer. Seeing Patroclus about to kill , his mortal son, Zeus says: Ah me, that it is destined that the dearest of men, Sarpedon, must go down under the hands of Menoitios' son Patroclus. Achilles' violent slaughter of fleeing Trojans drives them into the rivers Scmander and Xanthus. Alternately, the epithets might have made a rehearsed epic easier to remember. With divine help, Priam comes to Achilles' camp and ransoms the body of his son. In a dramatic duel, Achilles kills Hector. Hera Zeus and lures him to sleep, allowing to help the Greeks, and the Trojans are driven back onto the plain.
If the reader attempts to close-read Homer, he must beware of being misled by set phrases chosen to fit the meter. Wolf's narrator is Cassandra, whose thoughts we hear at the moment just before her murder by Clytemnestra in Sparta. Nestor berates the troops, reminding them of favorable signs from Zeus seen on the day they set out for Troy. Polydamas urges Hector again to withdraw into the city; again Hector refuses, and the Trojans camp on the plain at nightfall. Although Helen's decision to leave with Paris has been the cause of the Trojan War, now she seems full of regret for what she has done. Although he admits that he was the first to become angry, he is still too proud to truly make amends.
Achilles vows, and Calchas tells them that the plague has been sent by Apollo in punishment for Agamemnon's treatment of Chryses. Agamemnon moves through the ranks, scolding cowards, praising the brave, rallying the troops, giving orders. Meanwhile, Odysseus delivers Chryseis back to her father and helps the priest to make the sacrifice. Many of these epithets were probably handed down to Homer; it is his skill in using and arranging them, rather than sheer inventiveness, that marks him as a great poet. The gods don't like this, and send a message down to Achilleus telling him to give up the body. One, Lycaon, requests mercy and ransom, and Achilles urges him to accept death as a just end since Patroclus, and even Achilles himself, will die. The Trojans and the Greeks are about to make a truce that will end the war and save the city.