July 23, 1914 - Austria-Hungary, with the backing of Germany, delivers an ultimatum to Serbia. The Dual Alliance persisted throughout the war, known as the , and ended with their defeat in 1918. This attempt fails like the two before it, at the hands of highly motivated Serbs fighting on their home ground. Secondarily needs to be said that Italy was re-united after centurues of occupation from Spain, France, and specially from Austria, with whom Italy fought the hardest independence wars few years before. National also caused tension, both Germany and France were proud of their new empire. As they headed toward their destination, they narrowly escaped death when Serbian terrorists threw a bomb at their open-topped car. When the war began Italy refused to join with Germany and Austria.
To avoid misunderstanding, I'd like to stress that this isn't a point of view dating from the Versailles Treaty. The Anglo-Russian Entente resolved several points of disagreement, including the status of colonial possessions in the Middle East and Asia. If any member found itself at war with two or more nations at once, the alliance would come to their aid. As late as 1911 , chief of the Austrian general staff, was advocating a military preemptive strike against Austria's supposed Italian ally. Among these factors is nationalism.
Fall of the German Empire, 1914—1918 2 vol 1932. Alliances were hardly a new phenomenon in European history. This prediction was strengthened by Italy's of , bringing it into conflict with the German-backed Ottoman Empire. In 1891 attempts were made to join Britain to the Triplice, which, though unsuccessful, were widely believed to have succeeded in Russian diplomatic circles. Italy's main issue was its enmity with Austria-Hungary, Germany's main ally. Bismarck turned to Austria-Hungary and Russia. Relations between the French and Germans were also troubled, while France and Russia also had their differences.
This alliance ensured that each country would support the other if a war ever broke out between one of the allies and another great power. October 1912 - The Balkan War erupts in southern Europe as Serbia leads an attack by members of the Balkan League Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece against the Ottoman Turkish Empire to drive the Turks out of Europe. The countries in it were called the Central Powers. The United States remains the world leader, surpassing all of the European manufacturing nations combined. This defensive-military alliance was made in 1882. October-November, 1914 - Germans and Austrians launch a combined offensive against the Russians on the Eastern Front.
August 4, 1914 - Great Britain declares war on Germany. A European conference 1878; see , called to revise the treaty, caused a sharp decline in the friendship between Russia on the one hand and Austria-Hungary and Germany on the other; Bismarck formed 1879 a secret defensive alliance—the Dual Alliance—with Austria-Hungary. National tensions and rivalries have made alliances a common feature of European politics, however the alliance system became particularly extensive in the late 1800s. Alarmed by Germany's naval buildup, Britain, Russia, and France strengthened their own ties. In order words, it's possible that the General Staff was just saying 'yes, yes' to the Kaiser, who was rather keen on this decision in 1912. As war was declared, the allied countries emboldened each other to enter the fray and defend their treaties, although not every coalition was set in stone—Italy later changed sides. In 1873, the Three Emperors League was created, pledging mutual wartime support among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.
Italy, being newly formed and militarily weak, was viewed as a minor partner in this alliance. It calls for a giant counter-clockwise movement of German armies wheeling into France, swallowing up Paris, and then attacking the rear of the French armies concentrated in the Alsace-Lorraine area. Besides the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, other alliances and agreements were being formed. Not to be outdone, Germany built its own fleet of Dreadnoughts. Schmitt, The Coming of the War, 1914 1930, repr.
The impressive victory elevates Hindenburg and Ludendorff to the status of heroes in Germany. September 17, 1914 - On the Eastern Front, Austrian forces steadily retreat from the advancing Russian 3rd and 8th armies fighting in southern Poland and along the Russian-Austrian border. It was formed on 20 May 1882 and renewed periodically until it expired in 1915 during. December 16, 1914 - Britain suffers its first civilian casualties at home in the war as the German Navy bombards the coastal towns of Whitby, Hartlepool and Scarborough, killing 40 persons and wounding hundreds. Several of these secret clauses only became known to the public after the end of World War I.
Kings and princes regularly formed or re-formed alliances, usually to advance their own interests or isolate rivals. Since the Triple Alliance was a defensive -military alliance, when Germany and Austria looked towards Italy, Italy remained neutral because they thought they were the aggressors, not the defenders. This would be especially challenging for the Germans because they would then have to fight a two-front war with Russia on one side and France on the other. The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hugary, and the Ottoman Empire was called the Triple Alliance or Triple Entente. Undaunted, they continue their visit only to be shot and killed a short time later by a lone assassin.