In 1705, the Emperor Leopold I died. Each of these subdivisions of the king's council contained more members than the exclusive High Council, made up of the secretaries of state and of financial and judicial experts. By restructuring France's laws into one standard legal code Louis gained public support, by showing that he was a fair leader. Indeed, no constitutional reform or safeguards against royal authority was achieved by the Fronde - if anything, absolutist monarchical rule returned stronger than ever. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be into the established church. The new king took a close interest in matters of government, administration, policy, law and the military. In 1661, shortly after Louis reached adulthood, he shocked the royal court by assuming absolute control of the government.
However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, , known as Monseigneur. . The dowry was never paid and would later play a part persuading to leave his empire to Philip, Duke of Anjou later , the grandson of Louis and Maria Theresa. Government subsidizing and directing of industry and manufacture increased productivity, raised wages, and brought France into the trade wars with the English and the Dutch. Anne interfered much more in internal policy than foreign affairs; she was a very proud queen who insisted on the divine rights of the King of France. Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.
In this sense, they trod on the toes of the local nobility in most, if not all, areas of their life. His triumphs at the Battles of in 1690, in 1692, and in 1693 preserved northern France from invasion. I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. To avoid a regional governor becoming too powerful and building up too great an influence in any one region, they were moved from one province to another with a degree of regularity. Louis also renovated and improved the and other royal residences. The successful conclusion of the Treaty of Nijmegen enhanced French influence in Europe, but Louis was still not satisfied.
To break the Portuguese dominance there, Louis sent Jesuit missionaries to the court of the in 1685: , , , , and. The film, 2000; translated: The King Dances , directed by , reveals Louis through the eyes of , his court musician. As the greatest nobleman in France, he had no doubt that he must retain the prestige and privileges of the nobility; but he knew equally well that the nobility should not become a caste closed to ambitious and able men. Richelieu continued the process of undermining the power of the nobles through the use of intendants. Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom. He worked to streamline the collection of revenues, but in the course of his work instituted several mistaken policies, including mercantilist laws which restricted trade. Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope.
Jean Baptiste Colbert was the French Minister of Finance. It is true that a number of the most distinguished families of the reign were not of ancient nobility, but their faithful and effective service to the king was rewarded in an entirely traditional wayby social elevation. This was especially true in the second part of his reign when he became more and more influenced by. He won the favor of the upper bourgeoisie by making them royal administrators and intendants of the thirty-six generalites into which France was divided. Alternatively, in men fighting the king were fighting for a say in the central government. Imagine that instead of getting ready to start school at a tender age, somebody handed you the keys to the kingdom.
There the composer Jean-Baptiste Lully devised and directed a number of musical entertainments with such success that Louis granted him noble status and the office of a royal secretary. In 1679, he dismissed his foreign minister , because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies. Adopted 1643 - 1715 Crest The Helm An opened gold helmet, with blue and gold mantling. Not long after assuming the throne, the king and his family faced the onset of the French civil war, which brought humiliation and anger to members of the royal family, forcing them to leave their palace in Paris. This led to the formation of the 1686 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Sweden, , and Bavaria. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died. Although the Genoese submitted, and the led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance.
Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise. Louis's real attitude in this situation is not entirely clear: certainly his policy was in keeping with his authoritarian insistence upon unity. The principal taxes included the aides and douanes both , the a tax on salt , and the a tax on land. We must therefore fall back on privateering as the method of conducting war which is most feasible, simple, cheap, and safe, and which will cost least to the state, the more so since any losses will not be felt by the King, who risks virtually nothing.
The grand palace of Versailles, although it did bankrupt the country, gave France a public image of civilized glory that is still represented by Versailles today. His chief contribution to the king's finances, like Sully's, was to make the machinery more efficient, not to substitute any new mechanisms. In addition to aiding Louis' development, Mazarin was forced to contend with a series of rebellions in the late 1640s and early 1650s that became known as the Fronde. The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of and in 1710. These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. Eventually, France recovered its military pride with the decisive victory at in 1712.