The participants are usually a relatively homogeneous group of people. Focus group participants are typically asked to reflect on the questions asked by the moderator. There is also some qualitative research being done with photographs and video-taped observations as primary sources of data see, for example, Erikson and Wilson 1982, Wagner 1979. The major data obtained through at-sea observers are catch and effort data, which are often used for cross checking fishing logs. Public records can be collected from outside external or within internal the setting in which the evaluation is taking place. I: I did not have the same exams as the English students. One paper was essay writing and the other was fill in the blanks, etc.
By sampling fish before and after processing, conversion factors may be improved. Such formative observations could also provide valuable insights into the teaching styles of the presenters and how they are covering the material. The tables also would give ideas about what types of data can be collected simultaneously at the same source with the same method. Did students taught by participants appear to become more interested in class work? Highly dynamic variables, like catch or effort, may often be best obtained through daily records, such as logsheets. The recording of the information obtained may be done either during or after the interview. Frequently, discards data can only be collected by at-sea observers. Continuity of information a single subject area is being examined in depth and strings of behaviors are less relevant.
They require careful preparation of which, ideally this requires a lot of time and effort. The depth interview in marketing research may consist of either direct or indirect questions, or some combination of the two. Interviews Interviews provide very different data from observations: they allow the evaluation team to capture the perspectives of project participants, staff, and others associated with the project. · Direct observations: making direct measurements is the most accurate method for many variables, such as catch, but is often expensive. Advantages and Disadvantages of Structured and In-Depth Interviews An important advantage of research interviews is their adaptability. As with the advantages of conducting research interviews, disadvantages vary with the type of interview.
The respondent often has to spare limited available time to accommodate the interviewer, and as the interview progresses, certain questions may provide discomfort, whilst a lengthy interview may frustrate the interviewee. As this paper is about in-depth interviewing, other methods used will not be discussed here For the details of other methods used, please refer to Berry 1998b. Data collector fatigue it is desirable to have one individual conduct the data collection; a few groups will not create fatigue or boredom for one person. In the view of Legard et al. The sample size for in-depth and unstructured interviews is generally small and may not be representative of a particular population. A certain level of bias can thus be reduced through training and adherence to research ethics.
The use of a protocol helps assure that all observers are gathering the pertinent information and, with appropriate training, applying the same criteria in the evaluation. High indexing Participation — Interviewing respondents personally can increase the likelihood of their participation, many people participate directly. Types of information for which observations are a good source The setting - The physical environment within which the project takes place. On a positive note, one also notes that the personal nature of interviews can also aid in soliciting for higher response rates. It may also be most expedient for the project director or senior evaluation staff to conduct such interviews, if this can be done without introducing or appearing to introduce bias. Unpublished PhD thesis: University of Exeter. In order to address the time and cost issue, researchers usually respond by reducing the number of persons to participate, which in turn can has adverse effects on the quality of results due to inadequate sources of triangulation.
Establish rapport This can be achieved by, for example, respecting the informants opinions, supporting their feelings, or recognising their responses. There are many reasons to use interviews for collecting data and using it as a research instrument. The focused interview permits the interviewer to obtain details of personal reactions, specific emotions and the like. Government-related agencies: any agencies or institutes forming part of government including the inter-governmental level. Informational interviews: These types of interviews do not include any kind of performance pressures.
In the first approach, the interviewer or in some cases the transcriber listens to the tapes and writes a verbatim account of everything that was said. Observational approaches also allow the evaluator to learn about things the participants or staff may be unaware of or that they are unwilling or unable to discuss in an interview or focus group. Although structured interviews can be used to obtain almost any information, as with questionnaires, information is based on personal opinion. Unlike vessel registers, licences tend to be issued for access to specific fisheries over a set period of time. Cultural and institutional rules are rarely followed to the letter, and there are usually informal standards for an acceptable leeway. In addition to the drawbacks pointed out above, a disadvantage is that the interviewer may be more selective or biased in what he or she writes.
. This may be especially important where it is not the event that is of interest, but rather how that event may fit into, or be impacted by, a sequence of events. In semi-structured interviews, interviewer prepares a set of same questions to be answered by all interviewees. It may include the fish market at landing port, transaction secondary market of products among brokers, processing farms and consumers' market. Nevertheless, many variables collected by the inspectors are very useful, and include landings, operational information, effort, landing price, processing procedure and values of product to the market and processors.
The use of technological tools, such as battery-operated tape recorder or dictaphone, laptop computer, camera, and video camera, can make the collection of field notes more efficient and the notes themselves more comprehensive. Third, it was found that these students sometimes gave contradictory information in the interviews. I would always recommend the use of the primary interview technique as face-to-face. While each label suggests slightly different emphases, they all imply a movement toward assessment that supports exemplary teaching. See Appendix A to this chapter for an example of observational protocol that could be applied to the hypothetical project.
These are: Gender and age: This confirms what kind of a person the company is looking for the job. This video interview creates a certain level of professionalism while the interview is going on. To ensure success, researchers should be sensitive to individual situations and allow flexibility in different interviewing circumstances. The interviewer may have to contend with disruptions and other problems that may inhibit the acquisition of information and limit the comparability of interviews. In practice, observers do not only make direct measurements observations , but also conduct interviews and surveys using questionnaires. Some mothers feel that if you pick up a baby every time it cries, you will spoil it. Kvale 1996:135 suggests that researchers may use question like Is it correct that you feel that? They are one of the effective way to screen candidates for longer period of time.